Another instance will be the third person present tight on the verb
Ever since the past Prussian texts become limited together with indication was bad, linguists will rely more on evidence of Lithuanian than Old Prussian. The Proto-Indo-European diphthong *ei is actually retained as ei in past Prussian whereas in Lithuanian and Latvian it has got passed to iepare past Prussian deiw(a)s ‘Jesus’ beside Lithuanian Dia??vas, Latvian DA¬evs. We think that the old kind has got the diphthong *ei because in Sanskrit the Proto-Indo-European diphthong *ei was symbolized by -e- together with Sanskrit keyword for ‘goodness’ are devA?s (additionally authored as devA?h because in Sanskrit an -s becomes -h in word-final situation). Furthermore Latin Deus is derived initially from *deivos. Sequences of d or t plus a following j (pronounced like a y in English) before earlier ?? or N‹ stayed as a result in Old Prussian, but passed away to dNZ and ?? respectively in common Lithuanian. (DNZ is pronounced just like the j in English jam; ?? is pronounced just like the ch in English youngster.) Cf., e.g., Old Prussian median ‘forest’ which appears to have alike beginnings since Lithuanian medNZias (dialect phrase for forest). In Old Prussian it would appear that the ultimate -n has been maintained whereas in scruff recenzГ Lithuanian the -n has been destroyed and the preceding vowel was lengthened. It’s possible to contrast the outdated Prussian accusative singular deiwan ‘Jesus’ with all the Lithuanian accusative singular Diev?°. In Old Prussian the final -n is created, but we should just remember that , no residing person has actually heard a native past Prussian, so we don’t know if the last -n meant the consonant was actually pronounced like -n or perhaps your preceding vowel ended up being nasal.
The hook under the -?° implies that the vowel was longer, nonetheless it initially denoted your vowel is nasal
We’ve got stated adequate about Old Prussian to give an idea of the difficulties linked to deploying it as evidence for all the reconstruction regarding the Proto-Indo-European words. After that you have to query precisely why Latvian isn’t really made use of as much for Indo-European linguistics. Well, of the two residing Baltic dialects Latvian was less conventional than Lithuanian. And I genuinely believe that also the biggest Baltic linguist of all occasions, the now dead Professor J??nis Endzel??ns, a Latvian themselves, would have admitted to the. As an example, Lithuanian features kept an etymological k and g throughout opportunities whereas in Latvian prior to the vowels i, ??, age, ?·, ?¶, ?¶ the original k and grams became c (obvious ts) and dz respectively. Eg, the nominative plural of this phrase for ‘eyes’ try A?kys (/??k??s/) in Lithuanian, ackis (/akis/) in past Prussian, but in Latvian we discover acis (/atsis/). Or perhaps the Lithuanian term for ‘crane’ is g??rv?», Old Prussian is gerwe, but in Latvian we find dzerve. An essential term will be the keyword for ‘amber’, Lithuanian giA±taras, in Latvian dzA©tars. Note furthermore that Latvian was considerably old-fashioned because the earlier ending represented by regular Lithuanian -as has gone by to straightforward best -s in Latvian. There are many more samples of advancement within the Latvian noun declension when compared to maintenance of earlier form from inside the Lithuanian noun declension. Hence Lithuanian holds the existing dative singular finishing in vilk-ui, whereas Latvian features innovated by borrowing a pronoun or adjectival ending in vilk-am ‘(to the) wolf.’ Note the Lithuanian dative single masculine demonstrative pronoun tam(ui) ‘(to) that’ from the Latvian counterpart which, tarn, the noun finishing of Latvian vilk-am is derived. In which in Lithuanian the ending -a try retained, in Latvian really lost, cf. Lithuanian velk-a ‘drags’ vs. Latvian v?¶lk with the same meaning. Another function which distinguishes Latvian from more conservative Lithuanian usually under average conditions the sequence of vowel plus n in preconsonantal position has been changed by straightforward vowel. The formulae are as follows: